“In the darkness of the night, he felt himself being shaken by an external force that was completely beyond his control. He opened his eyes and realized that not only was he, trembling, but the objects in his room were also shaking, and the ceiling was starting to crack and crumble. The whole scene was trembling and a strange sound was echoing, and then suddenly the ceiling began to collapse and the ground started to shake. It was an earthquake.”s
How terrifying is such a dream!
As the Quran says, “And on the day when the earth shall be moved from its place.” Although this topic is mentioned in a different context, the shaking of the earth is the most destructive natural disaster on the list of calamities. Although it may be brief and intermittent, its effects linger for a long time.
The inhabitants of this planet witness this destruction once every few years in some parts of the world, but there is no way to avoid natural disasters completely. However, according to protective measures, there are some points that can be taken to avoid their effects. Especially in the case of residential buildings, earthquakes cause the most damage to houses and buildings, one reason being the use of faulty materials, among other factors. Regarding the construction of homes, we should keep some protective points in mind that can help us prevent natural disasters.
Earthquake And Secure Residential Construction
Building a secure and safe house is an essential aspect of human life. It’s not just about having a comfortable living space, but also about ensuring the safety and security of the people who inhabit it. When it comes to constructing a building or a house, one of the most crucial factors to consider is its ability to withstand natural disasters such as earthquakes.
Earthquake is an unpredictable natural calamity that can occur anytime and anywhere. It can cause widespread destruction, resulting in the loss of property and lives. That’s why it’s crucial to construct buildings and houses that are earthquake-resistant and can reduce the damage caused by these disasters.
Certain Factors Should Not Be Ignored
To build a secure and earthquake-resistant structure, several factors must be taken into account. The first and most important factor is the selection of appropriate building materials. Materials like reinforced concrete, steel, and wood are known to withstand earthquakes better than others. It’s also essential to ensure that the building’s foundation is strong enough to support its weight and withstand any seismic activity.
Traditionally, in rural and inferior areas of Pakistan many homes have been built with brick and concrete, which are not suitable for earthquake-resistant design. However, in recent years, there has been a growing awareness of the importance of seismic safety in home design. One of the most pressing issues in Pakistan’s urban areas is the culture of slum residency, commonly known as katchi abadi. The people living in these areas reside in improperly constructed or under-constructed places and are more vulnerable to the effects of various issues tenfold compared to others.
Public Awareness About Safety Precautions
In addition to building secure structures, it’s also essential to educate people on earthquake safety measures. This includes teaching them how to react during an earthquake, such as seeking shelter under sturdy furniture or standing in a doorway and having an emergency preparedness plan in place.
The Design Principles Behind Earthquake-Resistant Buildings
Preparing for natural disasters is crucial, particularly if you reside in an area where such incidents have occurred before since they are unpredictable. Earthquakes, for instance, may strike without warning and vary in magnitude, ranging from harmless to destructive. Therefore, the first step towards earthquake-proof construction is to lay a stable foundation, which ensures that the building can withstand natural disasters.
Create A Strong And Secure Base For The Building
The foundation of a building is of utmost importance since a weak one will cause the building to collapse during natural disasters. Before constructing a building on a particular plot of land, a thorough investigation must be conducted to ensure that the land is suitable for construction. Additionally, the land should be checked and inspected thoroughly during and after the foundation-laying process.
Seismic Base Isolation
Base isolation, also known as seismic base isolation, is a technique used to protect buildings from the effects of earthquakes by separating ground forces from the building structure. The building is constructed on pads that move during natural disasters instead of the entire structure, ensuring stability. This technique is important as buildings can become hazardous during earthquakes and a solid foundation is critical for survival.
Weight Of The Building
The weight of a building plays a crucial role in its strength and stability. Heavier buildings are typically more resistant to movement and collapse during natural disasters. To ensure a strong foundation, the building should be designed with extra partitions or structures to add weight. It’s also recommended to place additional weight on the lower floors to further reinforce the building’s foundation.
The selection of appropriate building materials is a crucial aspect of constructing an earthquake-resistant building. The right materials can greatly enhance the building’s ability to withstand natural disasters. It is important to use, reliable materials that have been tested for their ability to withstand earthquakes. Structural steel and concrete are the primary components of earthquake-proof structures, particularly for pillars and other key elements. These materials are often combined to increase their effectiveness against earthquakes. Other materials, such as wood, can also be used, but they may not be as strong as steel and concrete.
Prefer The Service Of An Expert
Consider hiring professionals such as contractors, engineers, architects, or design specialists if you have plans to secure your house’s seismic resistance. Professional engineers or architects have extensive knowledge and experience in designing earthquake-resistant buildings. They keep themselves updated with the latest research and technologies to provide the best results.
Some Key points To Remember
- Install safety glass: Use safety glass on windows, sliding doors, and other areas that are susceptible to breaking.
- Install automatic gas shut-off valves: In the event of an earthquake, automatic gas shut-off valves can prevent gas leaks and potential fires.
- Brace water heaters: Securely brace and strap your water heater to prevent it from toppling over and causing damage.
- Install flexible pipe fittings: Use flexible pipe fittings to ensure your gas and water lines can withstand movement during an earthquake.
- Anchor bookcases and cabinets: Anchor bookcases and cabinets to walls to prevent them from falling over.
- Reinforce chimneys: Use a chimney brace to reinforce your chimney and prevent it from toppling over.
- Install motion-sensitive lights: Install motion-sensitive lights to automatically light up your home in the event of an earthquake.
- Use seismic dampers: Install seismic dampers to reduce the amount of shaking and damage your house sustains during an earthquake.
In conclusion, earthquakes pose a significant threat to residential security in Pakistan due to the country’s geographical location on a tectonic plate boundary. While efforts have been made to improve building codes and disaster preparedness, more needs to be done to ensure that buildings are constructed to withstand seismic activity and that individuals are adequately trained to respond to earthquakes. Continued investment in earthquake-resistant infrastructure and disaster management systems can help mitigate the impact of future earthquakes on residential communities in Pakistan.
For more Blogs and Article visit JagahOnline.com